http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castiglione_della_Pescaia#Centro_storico Castiglione della Pescaia is an ancient seaside town in the province of Grosseto (Tuscany), Italy. The modern city grew around a medieval fortress (Italian: castello) and a large fishery, from which it got its designation. Today Castiglione della Pescaia is known for its beaches and has become a center of international (mostly European) tourism. Castiglione della Pescaia consists of a High City built on the hill that ends a chain of hills towards the sea, and of a Low City at the foot of the High City, straddling the drainage canal and marina that form the central part of town. Castiglione is located in the South-Western portion of Tuscany, with a gorgeous view of the islands of Elba and Giglio, and of the promontory of Argentario. The hills that back the city slope into beautiful beaches that front the town in its entirety. To the East of Castiglione is the rich floodplain of the Ombrone. Nothing much remains of the ancient lake Prile that used to be Castiglione's lifeblood. While Umbrians and Etruscans were most likely the first inhabitants of its location, Castiglione della Pescaia was first recorded under the name Salebrone in Roman times. The hill close to the coast proved to be an excellent location, as it dominated the sizable inland Prelius Lake, while the lake itself provided food (fish) and trading goods (salt). In Medieval times, the city suffered from repeated pirate attacks and almost disappeared. It resurfaced in the 9th century AD under its current name, under joint protection of the Papacy and the Republic of Pisa. The Pisans used Castiglione as a key element in their system of defence along the Tyrrhenian coast. They built first a single tower on top of the hill, later expanded that to three towers joined by a wall that became the nucleus of the citadel. The three towers of Castiglione dominate the city seal to this day. In the 13th century, Castiglione became an independent comune. Meanwhile, the river Ombrone had started silting up Lake Prile, which soon became a lagoon. In this newformed lagoon, malaria mosquitoes took hold, weakening the population of Castiglione. The city requested protection from various powers (Siena, the Medici, Aragon) and finally became part of the Grand Dukedom of Tuscany under the dynasty of Lorraine. The house of Lorraine started a series of projects that greatly enhanced the lives of Castiglionesi. The swamps were drained over decades, increasing the amount of arable land, as well as killing off the malaria carrying mosquitoes. After Tuscany became part of Italy in 1859, Castiglione became a comune in the province of Grosseto.
The Tuscany, one of the most beautiful Italian regions, is known throughout the world for its Landscapes and for the Works of Art that it houses (It is the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance). Six localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the Historical Center of Florence, Siena, San Gimignano and Pienza, the Square of the Cathedral of Pisa with the Leaning Tower and the Val d'Orcia. It is in the central Italy and borders with Emilia Romagna (north), Marche and Umbria (east) and Lazio (South). The West coast is bathed from the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Sea; here we can find the islands of the Tuscan archipelago including the island of Elba. The regional capital is Florence and the other provinces are: Arezzo, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Massa, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and Siena.