The first documentary of Campulung Muscel dates from 1300 (other sources mention the year 1292), Campulung being the oldest city in the Romanian Country. By the seventeenth century lived here a significant Saxon community. Human presence in this area is much older. The earliest traces of material culture, discovered both the radius of the city and its surrounding area, dates from the Late Bronze Age (1700-1600 BC).. Thus, Pescăreasa, southern town was found a necropolis, show the existence of human settlements.
This county has a total area of 6,862 km². The relief can be split into 3 distinctive parts. In the north side there are the mountains, from the Southern Carpathians group - the Făgăraş Mountains with Moldoveanu Peak (2,544 m), Negoiu Peak (2,535 m) and Vanatoarea lui Buteanu peak (2,508 m) towering the region, and in the North-East part the Leaotă Mountains. Between them there is a pass towards Braşov, the Rucăr-Bran Passage. The heights decrease, and in the center there are the sub-carpathian hills, with heights around 800 m, crossed with very deep valleys. In the south there is the northern part of the Romanian Plain.The main river that crosses the county is the Argeş River in which almost all the other rivers coming from the mountains flow. In the south the main rivers are the Vedea River and the Teleorman River.