The Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics is the first museum in the world dedicated to the history of space exploration. It was opened on 3 October 1967 in Kaluga, and is named after Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a school master and rocket science pioneer who lived most of his life in this city. The driving force behind the creation of the museum was Sergei Korolyov, chief designer of RKK Energiya. The building was designed by Boris Barkhin, Evgeny Kireev, Nataliya Orlova, Valentin Strogy and Kirill Fomin, and the cornerstone was laid by Yuri Gagarin on 13 June 1961. The museum has over 100,000 visitors per year.
Kaluga Oblast is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Kaluga. It was created in 1944 out of four other oblasts: Moskva Oblast, Orel Oblast, Smolensk Oblast, and Tula Oblast. It is located at the historical region of the former Kaluga Governorate.