At the site of St. Peter's was already in the early history of the town of Bruchsal been a house of God. It is known that in the 6th Century church in the same place standing. The earliest mention of a church dedicated to St. Peter in that place is found in the year 1278 Questionable church was destroyed in 1320 as part of a throne dispute.
Until 1360 the church in the Gothic style had been rebuilt. It burned down in 1689 largely. The surviving parts were first set again repaired in 1736 but is to leave the decision to leave the church by Balthasar Neumann built a completely new building, which should serve as a burial church of Speyer's Prince Bishops. Requirement for this building was a reference to St. Peter's in Rome and the retention of the Gothic building surviving choir. On 26 March 1742, the foundation stone was laid, after which preparations delayed repeatedly since 1738. 1746 the first mass was celebrated, the church was consecrated, but only completed 1749th With the installation of the organ in 1768 the works were considered complete.
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