The Church of St. Catherine is a Catholic church and Franciscan monastery connected to the mostly Orthodox Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.
The church is said to be built on the site of Christ's appearance to St. Catherine of Alexandria and his prediction of her martyrdom (c.310 AD). She is buried on Mt. Sinai.
The church is first recorded in the 15th century and may incorporate the chapter house of the 12th-century Crusader monastery that stood on the site.
Traces of a 5th-century monastery associated with St. Jerome also exist here. St. Catherine's Church was enlarged in 1881 with funds from the Emperor of Austria.