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Ukraine. Nizkinychi. Assumption Monastery.
Ukraine

Nizkinychi. Assumption Monastery.

Like a guardian angel on a hill on the outskirts of the city Novovolynsk, in his suburb, the former village Nizkinychi located Nizkinitsky ancient Assumption Monastery.

In the crypt under the main church of the monastery has been 350 years peacefully lie the remains of the prominent statesman and patron of the Orthodox, Kiev governor Adam Kissel.

And the official day of its foundation was September 16, 1643, when the light was still general Castellan Chernigov starostvo made fundushevuyu record, creating a new monastery, which, by the way, unlike the modern name was named in honor of the "Protection of the Prinaysvyatishoi Virgin Mary."

In fundushevomu record Adam Kissel wrote: "I pragnu schobi that Nizkinitsky Monastir i Dim God at a time not tіlki murіv foundation MAV, i do not tіlki stіni zakіnchenі to fame Boru th chentsіv dvanadtsyat on vіchnі chasi at Nyoma linger ... Nekhay same for Zhittya moє in Bozhіy boyaznі, Pokey Meni Lord added schaslivogo vіku and on smertі moїy for my soul when mnogogrіshnu moїm grobі i for i dushі moїh predkіv batkіv - for rodichіv zhivih she died, let them bratіya Lіturgіyah the saints, sacrifice schodennu posilaє to Vlad smertі that Zhittya ".

That's right, if zaglyaduyuchy into the future and taking care of their own participation and afterlife afterlife rest of their ancestors, as a true Christian, in the stones of the holy altar forever imprinted his name.

Foundation of a new monastery blessed St Peter Graves, Metropolitan of Kiev, which Adam Kissel was very close, always listening to the spiritual attitudes of the saint.

For proper maintenance of the monks and for the completion of the main sanctuary, for ten years, Adam Kissel is making a substantial donation to the new monastery.

To have survived something of the monastic rules of the time. In particular it is known that originally lived in the monastery of 12 monks, of which 7 was of the priestly dignity. Between one abbot, Kaznodey preacher and five presbyters. For daily committing two liturgies: early - in the old church or chapel of St. Nicholas the Great Martyr. George and the late - only in the main temple. Four fathers bore obedience choristers, and five were preachers.

Unfortunately, history has not kept us in the name of the first rector Nizkinichah, maybe it was "Reverend Sylvester Buchsky" that is mentioned in documents by 1660.

In those days, the monastery was the miraculous icon of Our Lady and St. Great Martyr. George - in honor of them annually make public release (indulgentsyi). In the temple were also portraits of parents magistrates - Gregory and Euphrosyne Kiselev.

Adam Kissel completed his earthly days on 53-year life and was buried according to his will in the chapel of St. George. More precisely in the crypt, which was under him. After 6 years the Lord has departed his wife Anastasia.

At the request of the childless senator village first goes to his brother's son, and then to his niece Ilaria N., married for the nobleman Daniel Stempkovsky. In 1662 Nizkinichi have been leased out Kadevichiv-Konchinskih and soon pass into the hands of tenants Dovgialo-Tsirin.

Recent convert to Catholicism begin terrible oppression, putting a lot of effort to bring the monastery to utter ruin and betrayal to Orthodoxy.

In 1698 the monastery becomes Nizkinitsky Uniate. Lutsk Bishop Leo Zalensky ordered to shave all inhabitants of the Roman way. Before that, he, along with a detachment of Polish troops forcibly seized the Winter Palace, drowning in Luga his last unconquered defenders.

Possessor Dovgialo-Tsirin to provide further harassment monastery. So, in 1722, Francis Dovgialo-Tsirin ordered to beat the then abbot John Vizanskogo, after which the victim died.

And after many trials monks still managed to put in place possessor. At the beginning of XIX-th century local monks was familiar document, according to which 9 February 1744 Pope Benedict XIV - high authority of the Western church fully recognized fundushem Nizkinitskogo monastery through a specially issued a bull, the original of which is stored in the local file.

On the basis of the legal return of historical justice in the middle of the XVIII century bazilianam through trials successfully seek payment of long-term debt from Dovgialo-Tsirin and actually leads to their complete destruction.

Along with the change of political system the edge, when Western Volyn finally passes under the authority of the Russian Empire radically change the situation. A mass return of Uniate parishes in the bosom of the Orthodox Church. In 1796, the Office of the Orthodox clergy passes St. Basil's temple, which becomes a parish. After a 98-year hiatus, here again, as in ancient times sent Orthodox liturgy.

With the transition of the temple monks baziliane taken away from him a corporal and silver liturgical utensils and subsequently had their worship in the chapel situated near. In addition, they still led his own farm since remained in their possession all the land, ponds, as well as the estate together with wooden monastic cells.

In 1802, a few monks who stayed in the monastery attributed to his brother Vladimir-Volyn monastery, but the monastery itself, as an administrative unit of the monastic Uniate Church lasted until June 1837.

Church of the Dormition.

In a quiet reverie high blue sky bathed in sunshine architectural ensemble of the Holy Dormition Monastery Nizkinitskogo. From a distance, it seems as if he is up on the mountain and quickly rises above the ambient surroundings. At the heart of the Assumption Church stands. It is, of regular shape, cross rivnoramenny. Utmost ease and elegance of lines of fortifications, stands the central portion having a high drum and crowned with a dome. The same four reduced lateral branching of the cross in the center of the composition interpreted in a very restrained form structures found expression directly, type of wooden five-domed temple. Generously proportioned main volume and the upper, extreme simplicity of architectural design, restrained use of the scenic modeling make this place one of the great buildings of its time.

By the time construction of the temple, there is a lot of conflicting opinions and ideas. According to historical sources, the date of commencement of construction of the Assumption Church is 1636. Sometimes erroneously indicate 1643 - the year when Adam Kissel wrote his will on the establishment of a Nizkinichah monastery. But the will itself makes it clear that the church walls have already been laid and the monastery is tasked to complete the construction.

Initially, the church was consecrated in honor of the "Protection of the Virgin Mary Prinaysvyatishoi." Known for reliable date of consecration of the church - it happened in 1653. However, the parish priest John Yaschevskogo submitted to the court in 1837, the description of the church, composed in 1806, which stated that it was built in 1659. How do we reconcile these dates? In 1653 he died, Adam Kissel. He bequeathed to bury him in Nizkinichah, where for two centuries rested his ancestors. It is likely that the consecration of the church was accelerated so that you can in the crypt underneath bury founder. A certain part of the work, minor, could be carried out and after, until 1659.

So, based on the known sources is likely to believe that the church was built during 1636 - 1659 years. But even specifying give, we can confidently say that the construction was carried out for about two decades. In those days it was quite normal as possible.

At the beginning of the church was covered with shingles, as they said in ancient times - "beaten shingles." However, this should not be considered a poor roof. In those days did not know better, the red tiles have not been applied. Shingle roofing cost dearly: Planed boards and riveted special cloves - gontali made by hand.

In 1796 the monastery church becomes ascribed to the arrival of the Calusa village.

In 1832, the audited churches Volyn Diocese of Moscow archpriest Platonov. Nizkinitsky church, which at that time in connection with the closing of the monastery did not hold services, acquired the right to a separate parish.

In 1839, with the opening of the parish Nizkinitskogo Volyn spiritual consistory through the local provincial government demanded that the new owner of the estate of a nobleman Nizkinitskogo Modzalevsky put Nizkinitsky church land and repair the church. In 1841 Modzalevsky asked the provincial government with the announcement that the church needed to repair a lot of money, and he was not able to from their relatively small estates village Nizkinichi allocate the money, because to do so would have to sell the estate itself. Given the fact that the builder of the church, Adam Kissel appointed her maintain significant capital that funds were transferred to Vladimir-Voliiskogo monastery, in the opinion of Modzalevsky, it would be necessary to return the capital Nizkinitsky church and use it to repair.

Provincial government has sent a statement Modzalevsky in Vladimir-Volyn district court for consideration. County Court in its decision of 23 March 1842 stated: all signed Adam Kisiel Nizkinitsky church capitals and return the land in favor of the church. The decision was approved June 30, 1843 at a meeting of the Volyn Civil Chamber. But the government's Senate, where the case is passed to the audit, the decision of Volyn courts disagreed and, taking into account that all the capitals of the monastery went to the treasury, to complement the collection of documents held: landlord Modzalevsky release from the obligation to repair Nizkinitskoy church obovyazav it at same time give it the land. Of the government decree of the Senate in this case it is clear that Modzalevsky claiming lack of funds for the repair of the church, wrote in his defense that this church is very large and the other a size allegedly not across Volyn.

After isolation Modzalevsky land in favor of the church the question of its repair subsided. The case ended with the fact that the church has become neglected, and the priest, received in the village Nizkinichah land went to live in the Calusa.

Several decades temple stood empty on the hill. People avoided him, but only crows flew out empty pupils broken windows, and at night from the bushes, covered on the domes, plaintively crying owl.

The twentieth century.

Since the late '40s to the 80s of the XIX century, in the service of the church Nizkinitsky not sent, and the temple itself is in disrepair.

However, at the end of the XIX century. local intellectuals became interested in historical monuments. There was a movement for the study of these monuments, archaeological researches were conducted. In the early 80-ies in Lutsk Brotherhood of interest arises antiquity, which has struggled to save valuable historical monuments.

He headed the study of antiquity court counselor Omelian Dvernitsky, whose name was in the village Budyatichi 2 mile from Nizkinichah, so the old church could not stay out of their attention. Among those viewed in those days, a monument of architecture of Kiev were Professor V. Antonovich and A. Prakhov - last even took photographs of buildings and valuable church plate, vestments, icons and books, a lot of which at the time was there. Attended Nizkinichi known Maecenas - Countess Uvarov also warmly advocated the need for proper restoration of the church. With the assistance of the bishops, by the peasants shrine was partly given in the proper form and at the turn of the century covered dome. Money is the Holy Synod in 1896 appear houses and business premises for the local clergy. The thing about the repair of the temple went more than 10 years, when in 1913 it was decided to allocate 10 000 rubles. with the Synod of funds in 1915. This prevented the accomplishment of the First World War.

In times of Polish rule temple was listed as one of the first to "revindikatsii" in the Vladimir district. Catholic Church did not return, but in the interwar years and rob her wracking patron. After opening the barbaric sarcophagus from it disappear kleinods and Golden Rod deceased.

In Nizkinichah there is a local legend that in 1930, visited the tomb of the head of the Polish state, which does not justify the events of the then supporters of the papacy, because the latter have that "if the founder of the church was Orthodox, let this same shrine and remains." Moreover, since 1935 under the auspices of the state begins its restoration.

Unfortunately and World War II bypasses the church party. During the Soviet offensive took place near the front line, leaving behind devastated the top of the central dome and countless holes in the roof.

In the 50s next to the church began to upset mining town Novovolinsk. Communist ideology bright future was very unpleasant service at the Assumption Church. Them and it was decided to close it. This happened in 1961.

One gloomy morning in the next, in 1962 there were militant atheists in the room of the Assumption Church, and made it a pogrom.

The first victim in the church became a sculptural portrait of Adam Kisiel grave - an outstanding monument of Ukrainian art statutory XVII. Communist barbarians XX century. using scrap dropped it on the floor. From blow figure split into two parts.

Church books and iconostasis were also broken. Dropping into the dungeon. where the coffin with the remains of the sarcophagus of Adam Kissel, the Communists broke off the coat of arms, decorated sarcophagus and severely damaged it. Bones magistrates vandals scattered on the floor, and skull were playing soccer. Nizkinichi village church was ruined and closed for seven long years.

On an unprecedented act of vandalism rumors reached the capital. Thence Volyn was sent a special commission consisting of eminent scientists and researchers of art. Recent strongly condemned the crime, but to severely punish the vandals no one was going.

Saved the church from the new death only that local clergy and parishioners was only in Borispol find one of the distant descendants Kiselev. With the help of the temple 8 June 1969 re-opened for worship. While Lviv restorers to restore what is left from the previous achievements, and again the abbot of. Vladimir Ponagaybo (1969 - 1987 gg.) Picked up a difficult matter concerns the human soul.

Father Vladimir served simultaneously in three parishes. In addition, he served as the village Nizkinichi Tishkovichi in the village and in the village of Ridge. Services are held alternately. An epoch in the life of a young Novovolinsk associated with the name of the pastor. "In a good old age, full of days" (But.25,8), he went to the Lord in 2002. Eternal memory!

Through the efforts of these pastors in godless times are not left without sacraments residents, just rebuild the mining town of Novovolynsk, where the opening of the temple was not mentioned.

Nizkinitsky parish was also at one time the arrival of the first governor of the modern Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, Archbishop Paul (Swan, 1987 - 1994).

The last parish priest of the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary was Archpriest Anatoly Sidko (1994 - 1997 gg.).

Gone are the days of rebellion - it is time to restore historical justice.

October 28, 1997 decision of the Holy Synod on the holy mountain Nizkinitsky, as in ancient times, is again restored monastic life.

Acting governor was appointed abbot of Athanasius (Kovalchuk, 1997 - 2000.). He was the first builder of the restored monastery.

March 26, 2000 became the abbot of the monastery abbot Vincent (Mazur).

Now he stands firm, the center of Orthodoxy, the witness of a large voltage of spiritual strength and quiet monastic life, sincere and constant prayer to God, for the whole world. Majestically rises his five-domed church on a hill on the outskirts of the young city. He forcefully attracts people. Covered unfathomable mystery that is achieved when touching the wall in his own hand, a sigh of air enveloping this shrine, sky, which protects it for centuries, listening to the church chime.

Text taken from - http://monastyr.org.ua/litopys.html

Copyright: Maxim Ritus
Type: Spherical
Resolution: 9000x4500
Taken: 14/04/2014
Uploaded: 24/02/2015
Updated: 31/12/2019
Views:

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Tags: church; old; monastery; monks; orthodox; virgin; history; architecture
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